Master Degree In [specific City/country] – (from Latin magister) is a master’s degree awarded by colleges or universities that demonstrates mastery or advanced overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
A master’s degree normally requires a previous bachelor’s degree, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Those with a master’s degree within the field of study are required to have a highly developed knowledge of theoretical and applied topics; high-level skills in analysis, critical evaluation, or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think critically and independently.
Master Degree In [specific City/country]
The master’s degree dates back to the origins of European universities, and a papal bull of 1233 decreed that anyone admitted to a master’s degree at the University of Toulouse was free to teach at any other university. The original purpose of the master’s degree was therefore that those who had attained the degree (degree) of a master (i.e. teacher) in one university would be admitted to the same degree in other universities. This gradually developed into lictia docdī (licce to teach). At first masters and doctors were not distinguished, but in the 15th century it became customary in Glish universities to call the teachers of the lower faculties (arts and grammar) masters and the teachers of the upper faculties doctor.
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Originally, the Bachelor of Arts (BA) was awarded for the study of the Trivium and the Master of Arts (MA) for the study of the Quadrivium.
From the late Middle Ages to the 19th century, the model for degrees was to have bachelor’s and master’s degrees in the lower faculties and bachelor’s and doctoral degrees in the upper faculties. The first master’s degrees (Magister Artium or Master of Arts) in the United States were awarded shortly after Harvard University was founded.
In Scotland, pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scots MA became their first degree, and at Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College Dublin degrees were awarded to non-MA graduates. certain standard. Studies after the end of the 17th century, its main purpose is to grant full membership of the university.
At Harvard, 1700 regulations required applicants for a master’s degree to pass a public examination.
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In the 19th century, the range of master’s degrees expanded significantly. At the beginning of the study program, the only master’s degree was the MA, which was usually awarded without further study or degrees. The University of Glasgow introduced the degree of Master of Surgery in 1815.
By 1861, it was adopted in Scotland, Cambridge, Durham and the University of Dublin, Ireland.
The Philadelphia College of Surgeons was founded in 1870 and also awarded a master’s degree in surgery “as in Europe”.
Although there was considerable doubt about the quality of Scottish degrees during this period. Lord Brougham, Lord Chancellor and alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords in 1832 that “ministerial universities confer degrees after a long stay, after much work has been done, and if they are not in all respects as rigid as before. The constitutions of universities require, but do not say that masters of arts were created at Oxford and Cambridge, as in Scotland, without residence or degrees. degrees were a dead letter.”
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Only until 1837 Gland M.A. separate examinations for were re-introduced at the newly founded University of Durham (although, as in the older universities, this was to ensure full membership), followed in 1840 by a similar new. The University of London, which in its charter is empowered to grant degrees only by examination.
However, in the medium term, the MA as an examined second degree was again under threat, and Durham moved to award it automatically in 1857, along with the Oxbridge MA, to honors at the BA and later at Edinburgh. other Scottish universities award the MA as a first degree instead of the BA from 1858.
At the same time, new universities, including graduate degrees, were established around the British Empire, such as London: the University of Sydney in Australia and the University of Que in Ireland in 1850, and the universities of Bombay (now the University of Mumbai), Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857.
In the United States, the revival of master’s degrees as a learned profession began in 1856 at the University of North Carolina, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859.
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The idea of a master’s degree as an earned second degree was established only in the 1870s, along with a doctorate as a final degree.
Sometimes it was possible to get an MA degree either by taking an exam or by taking coursework at the same institution; for example, in Michigan the MA in “course” was introduced in 1848 and was last awarded in 1882, while the “degree” was introduced in 1859.
Probably the most important graduate degree introduced in the 19th century is the Master of Science (MSc in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan it was introduced in 1858 in two forms: “in the course”, first given in 1859, and “degree”, first given in 1862. The “Course” MS was last issued in 1876.
In Britain, the diploma took longer. When London introduced the faculty in 1858, the university was granted a new charter authorizing it “to confer the several degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor of Arts, Laws, Science, Medicine, and Music.”
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The same two degrees were awarded at Edinburgh, except for the MA, although the MA is a Scottish Bachelor of Arts.
In 1862, a royal commission proposed that Durham award the degrees of Master of Divinity and Master of Science (with the proposed abbreviations MT and MS, in contrast to the British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees).
But his recommendations were not implemented. In 1877, Oxford introduced the MA and BA degrees alongside the MA and BA in Natural Sciences, awarded to horses completing degrees in the College of Natural Sciences.
But in 1880 the offer of a Master’s degree was rejected, as well as a proposal to grant Masters of Arts to Masters of Science to become full members of the University.
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This system appears to have been quietly abandoned and Oxford continues to award undergraduate and graduate degrees.
Both MA and MSc at the University of Victoria followed the lead of the Durham MA, requiring an additional degree for those with a standard bachelor’s degree, but not for an honors degree.
In the early 20th century, there were four different master’s degrees in Great Britain: the first degree was the Scottish MA; Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), awarded to all BA graduates within a specified period after the first degree without further study; postgraduate degrees, which could be obtained with a postgraduate or honors degree (which included further study beyond the standard degree, as at the time in the UK, Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and master’s degrees (including all London master’s degrees) which can only be obtained through postgraduate study. In 1903, the London Daily News criticized the practice at Oxford and Cambridge, calling their masters “the stupidest of academic frauds” and “industrial degrees”.
Difficult correspondence noted that “the Scottish M.A. is at most only the equivalent of the Glish B.A.” and insisted on common standards of degrees, while the defenders of the old universities called ‘Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be a reward for learning,” and “it is quite absurd to describe one of their degrees as false.” Modern universities give the same degree for different reasons.
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In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), which was first awarded in 1902. It was the first Master of Commerce degree, the forerunner of the modern MBA.
The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic when Manchester established its Faculty of Economics in 1903, which offered undergraduate and graduate degrees in economics.
In the first half of the year, automatic Masters degrees were lost for honors graduates as the honors degree became the standard undergraduate degree in the UK. In the 1960s, the new Scottish universities (with the exception of Dundee, which inherited its MA from St Andrews) reinstated the BA as a MA qualification and offered it as an undergraduate degree. Oxford and Cambridge retained their master’s degrees, but carried out many postgraduate studies
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